The aim of this project is to develop a novel injury and accident surveillance system, underpinned by the systems approach to accident causation and analysis, for the led outdoor activity industry in Australia. This involves translation of the latest thinking on accident causation in the led outdoor activity industry.
Little is currently known about the incidence of injuries during led outdoor activities in Australia, the factors that cause injuries, or the most appropriate prevention strategies for the domain. To tackle this problem, members of the Australian led outdoor activity industry are currently engaged in a program of research with the Monash University Accident Research Centre (MUARC). Stage 1 of the program was completed in 2009, and stage 2 commenced at the end of 2011. A summary of stages 1 and 2 is given below.
Stage 1 – Problem Definition
Stage 1 involved a review of accident causation research in the led outdoor activity domain and an analysis of three led outdoor activity accidents. A workshop involving project stakeholders, led outdoor activity personnel, and researchers from MUARC was then held to disseminate the research findings and determine the most appropriate way forward for the subsequent phases of the research. Based on recommendations arising from the report and workshop, an ARC linkage grant was developed for Phase 2, which received funding at the end of 2011.
Stage 2 – Incident database development and validation
Stage 2 involved the development and trialling of an incident database for the led outdoor activity industry. This involves the following phases of research:
- Incident database development. Prototype incident reporting, storage and analysis methods, including robust data coding and classification systems, will be developed based on incident reports from the led outdoor activity sector. These methods will together form a prototype incident database;
- Prototype database refinement. The prototype database will be trialled by a small number of led outdoor activity providers for 6 months. The lessons learnt during this period will be used to refine the database;
- In-depth incident study. The refined incident database will be utilised by a large cross section of led outdoor activity providers in order to conduct an in-depth study of injury causing incidents over 12 months; and
- Accident causation model development. Based on the findings derived from the former phases, a systems-based model of accident causation for the led outdoor activity domain will be developed. This model will be used by the industry to guide injury prevention efforts.
UPLOADS: An overview
An early presentation on the planned development of the UPLOADS
UPLOADS: Literature Review & Exploratory Analysis
While the exact rate of incidence is unknown (due to the paucity of exposure data), it is acknowledged
that safety compromising accidents and incidents occur in the led outdoor activity domain, and that
they represent an important issue. Despite this, compared to other safety critical domains, very little is
currently known about the key causal factors involved in such accidents and incidents. This report
presents the findings derived from a review of the literature, the aim of which was to identify the
Human Factors-related issues involved in accidents and incidents occurring in this area. In addition, to
demonstrate the utility of systems-based, theoretically underpinned accident analysis methodologies
for identifying the systemic and human contribution to accidents and incidents occurring in the led
outdoor activity domain, three case-study accidents were analysed using two such approaches. In
conclusion, the review identified a range of causal factors cited in the literature; however, it was noted
that the majority of the research undertaken to date lacks theoretical underpinning and focuses mainly
on instructor or activity leader causal factors, as opposed to the wider system failures involved. The
accident analysis presented highlighted the utility of systems-based, theoretically underpinned
accident analysis methodologies for analysing and learning from accidents and incidents in the led
outdoor activity sector. In closing, the need for further research in the area is articulated, in particular
focussing on the development of standardised and universally accepted accident and incident reporting
systems and databases, the development of data driven, theoretically underpinned causal factor
taxonomies, and the development and application of systems-based accident analysis methodologies.